Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. Palaeobotanical, Chemical and Physical Investigation of the Content of an Ancient Wine Amphora from the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy.
While most palynologists have assumed that pollen grains are resistant to alcoholic fermentation, a recent study in food science implies that pollen is a yeast nutrient because pollen-enriched meads produce more alcohol.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: amino-acid dating; aminostratigraphy; amino-acid racemization, amino acid racemization CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A method of absolute (chronometric) dating which is hoped to fill the gap between radiocarbon dates and potassium-argon dates.
It is used for human and animal bone and other organic material.
dating, the determination of the age of an object, of a natural phenomenon, or of a series of events.
There are two basic types of dating methods, relative and absolute.
At ARS Ltd we have considerable experience of pollen analysis and combining this information with archaeological data to provide a more thorough understanding of the past and answer questions that could not be tackled by archaeological data alone.
Material such as cereal grains and weed seeds (plant macrofossils) are frequently found on archaeological sites.
As the climate changes—growing warmer or colder, drier or wetter—so do the natural ranges of various plant species with specific temperature and precipitation requirements.
The paper concludes with the potential and limits of palynological study to assess fermentation within the archaeological record.
Archaeological Palynology in the United States: A Critique.
Aspartic acid is the compound most often used because it has a of 15,000-20,000 years and allows dates from 5,000-100,000 years to be calculated.
However, racemization is very much affected by environmental factors such as temperature change.